I think you are hinting at something bigger that isn't possible. In order to do shape queries, the shapes you are querying against need to be added to the space. In order for a shape to be added to the space, it must be connected to a body.
Chipmunk doesn't explicitly support collisions without physics, but it's not hard to set up. Basically what you'll be doing is creating rogue bodies, and attaching the shapes to those. A rogue body is just a body that you don't add to the space so that you can control the way it's position and velocity are updated manually. Collisions still work normally. To avoid Chipmunk trying to apply collision forces between your rogue bodies, you should override the space's default begin callback to return false. That tells Chipmunk to ignore processing the collision further. Then make collision handlers that implement the pre-solve callback for any pairs of collision types you want events for. These callbacks must also return false to tell Chipmunk to ignore processing the collision forces.
1) Create a body for each ship. Don't add the body to the space since you'll update it yourself.
2) Override the default "begin" collision handler to simply return false to avoid processing collision forces.
3) Add collision handler with a pre-solve for the colliding types you care about. It should also return false.
4) Each frame, update the position and velocity* of the rogue bodies. Then step the space to call the collision callbacks.
*Updating the velocity is optional, but it will give you slightly better performance if you do. The collision detection uses the velocity to estimate how long to cache collisions for.